Air-to-Air (A2A) Missiles


An air-to-air missile (AAM) is a guided missile fired from an aircraft with the purpose of destroying another aircraft or helicopter. It is typically powered by one or more rocket motors, usually solid fuelled but sometimes liquid fuelled. Ramjet engines, as used on the MBDA Meteor (currently in development), are emerging as propulsion that will enable future medium-range missiles to maintain higher average speed across their engagement envelope.

Guidance

Guided missiles operate by detecting their target (usually by radar or infra-red methods, sometimes by laser guidance or optical tracking), and then "homing" in on the target on a collision course. The target is usually destroyed or damaged by means of an explosive warhead, often throwing out fragments to increase the lethal radius, typically detonated by a proximity fuse (or impact fuse if it scores a direct hit).

Note that although the missile may use radar or infra-red guidance to home on the target, this does not necessarily mean that the same means is used by the launching aircraft to detect and track the target before launch. Infra-red guided missiles can be "slaved" to an attack radar in order to find the target and radar-guided missiles can be launched at targets detected visually or via an infra-red search and track (IRST) system, although they may require the attack radar to illuminate the target during part or all of the missile interception itself.


Radar guidance

Radar guidance is normally used for medium or long range missiles, where the infra-red signature of the target would be too faint for an infra-red detector to track. There are two major types of radar-guided missile - active and semi-active.

Active radar(AR)-guided missiles carry their own radar system to detect and track their target. However, the size of the radar antenna is limited by the small diameter of missiles, limiting its range which typically means such missiles have to use another method to get close to the target before turning their radar set on, often inertial guidance).

Semi-active radar (SAR) homing missiles are simpler and more common. They function by detecting the radar energy reflected from the target, the radar energy is emitted from the launch aircraft's own radar signal. However, this means the launch aircraft has to maintain a "lock" on the target (keep illuminating the target aircraft with its' own radar) until the missile makes the interception, limiting the attacking aircraft's ability to maneuver, which may be necessary should threats to the attacking aircraft appear.

An early form of radar guidance was "beam-riding" (BR). In this method the attacking aircraft directed a narrow beam of radar energy at the target. The air-to-air missile was launched into the beam where sensors on the aft of the missile controlled the missile, keeping it within the beam. So long as the beam was kept on the target aircraft, the missile would ride the beam until making the interception. While simple in concept, the difficulty of simultaneously keeping the beam solidly on the target (which couldn't be relied upon to cooperate by flying straight and level), continuing to fly one's own aircraft, all the while keeping an eye out for enemy countermeasures, can be readily appreciated. Although radar beam-riding air-to-air missiles are obsolete, the technology has since evolved toward laser-beam guided air-to-ground munitions, such as laser-guided bombs (LGB). These precision-strike munitions are sometimes called "smart weapons" by the press.

Radar guided missiles can be countered by rapid manoeuvring (which may result in them "breaking lock", or may cause them to overshoot), deploying chaff or using electronic counter-measures.

Infrared guidance

Infrared guided (IR) missiles home on the heat produced by an aircraft. Early infra-red detectors had poor sensitivity, so could only track the hot exhaust pipes of an aircraft. This meant an attacking aircraft had to maneuver to a position behind its' target before it could fire an infra-red guided missile. This also limited the range of the missile as the infra-red signature soon become too small to detect with increasing distance and after launch the missile was playing "catch-up" with its' target.

More modern infra-red guided missiles can detect the heat of an aircraft's skin, warmed by the friction of airflow, in addition to the fainter heat signature of the engine when the aircraft is seen from the side or head-on. This, combined with greater maneuverability, gives them an "all-aspect" capability, and an attacking aircraft no longer had to be behind its target to fire. Although launching from behind the target increases the probability of a hit, the launching aircraft usually has to be closer to the target in a tail-chase engagement.

An aircraft can defend against infra-red missiles by dropping flares that are hotter than the aircraft, so the missile homes in on the brighter, hotter target. Towed decoys and infra-red jammers can also be used. Some large aircraft and many combat helicopters make use of so called "hot brick" infra-red jammers, typically mounted near the engines. Current research is developing laser devices which can spoof or destroy the guidance systems of infra-red guided missiles.

However, the latest missiles such as the ASRAAM use an "imaging" infra-red seeker which "sees" the target ( much like a digital video camera), and can distinguish between an aircraft and a point heat source such as a flare. They also feature a very wide detection angle, so the attacking aircraft does not have to be pointing straight at the target for the missile to lock on. The pilot can use a helmet mounted sight (HMS) and target another aircraft by looking at it, and then firing. This is called "off-bore sight" launch. The Russian Su-27 is equipped with an infrared search and track (IRST) system with laser rangefinder for its HMS-guided missiles.

Electro-optical

A recent advancement in missile guidance is electro-optical imaging. The Israeli Python-5 has an electro-optical seeker that scans designated area for targets via optical imaging. Once a target is acquired, the missile will lock-on to it for the kill. Electro-optical seekers can be programmed to target vital area of an aircraft, such as the cockpit. Since it doesn't depend on the target aircraft's heat signature, it can be used against low-heat targets such as UAV's and cruise missiles.

Design

Air-to-air missiles are typically long, thin cylinders in order to reduce their cross section and thus minimize drag at the high speeds at which they travel. At the front is the seeker, either a radar system, radar homer, or infra-red detector. Behind that lies the avionics which control the missile. Typically after that, in the centre of the missile, is the warhead, usually several kilograms of high explosive surrounded by metal that fragments on detonation.

The rear part of the missile contains the propulsion system, usually a rocket of some type. Dual-thrust solid-fuel rockets are common, but some longer-range missiles use liquid-fuel motors that can "throttle" to extend their range and preserve fuel for energy-intensive final manoeuvring. Some solid-fuelled missiles mimic this technique with a second rocket motor which burns during the terminal homing phase. There are missiles in development, such as the MBDA Meteor, that "breathe" air (using a ramjet, similar to a jet engine) in order to extend their range. Modern missiles use "low-smoke" motors - early missiles produced thick smoke trails, which were easily seen by the crew of the target aircraft alerting them to the attack and helping them determine how to evade it.

Missile range

Missiles are often cited with their maximum engagement range, which is very misleading. A missile's effective range is dependent on factors such as altitude, speed, position, and direction of target aircraft. For example the Vympel R-77 has stated range of 100 km. That's only true for a head-on, non-evading target at high altitude. At low altitude, the effective range is reduced by as much as 75%-80% to 20-25 km. If the target is taking evasive action, or in sterm-chase position, the effective range is even further reduced. The effective range of an air-to-air missile is known as the 'no-escape zone', noting the range at which the target can not evade the missile once launched.




Name AIM-120A AMRAAM
Picture AIM-120A AMRAAM
Country USA
Manufacturer Hughes Missile Systems Division
Date Deployed 1991
Range 72 km (Some sources claim 48 km)
Speed Mach 4
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance Mid-course inertial navigation and Hughes active radar.
Warhead 20 kg proximity and impact delay fused blast/fragmentation
Launch Weight 152 kg
Length 3.66 m
Diameter 0.178 m
Fin Span 0.63 m
Platforms F-15 Eagle, F-16 Falcon, F/A-18 Hornet, F-4F Phantom, JAS-39 Gripen, Tornado, Sea-Harrier
Remarks Raytheon is also integrating the AIM-120 on the Eurofighter Typhoon, F/A-22A and Harrier II+


Name AIM-54A/C Phoenix
Picture AIM-54A/C Phoenix
Country USA
Manufacturer Hughes Missiles Systems
Date Deployed 1973
Range 180 km
Speed Mach 4.3+
Propulsion One Aerojet Mk 60 Mod 0 or Rocketdyne Mk 47 Mod 0 solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance Hughes DSQ-26 system using inertial, semi-active and active radar
Warhead 59.9 kg Bendix IR and Downey Mk 334 radar proximity and impact delay fused continuous rod blast/fragmentation
Launch Weight 446.8 kg
Length 4.01 m
Diameter 0.38 m
Fin Span 0.925 m
Platforms The F-14 Tomcat navy planes


Name AIM-7F/M Sparrow
Picture AIM-7F/M Sparrow
Country USA
Manufacturer Raytheon Co.
Date Deployed July 1956
Range 100 km
Speed Mach 3.7
Propulsion One Hercules Mk 58 Mod 0 or Aerojet Mk 65 Mod 0 dual-thrust solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance Raytheon Advanced Monopulse Seeker inverse-monopulse semi-active radar homing
Warhead 39.9 kg proximity and impact delay fused Mk 71 continuous- rod blast/fragmetation
Launch Weight 228.2 kg
Length 3.68 m
Diameter 0.203 m
Fin Span 1.02 m
Platforms F-14 Tomcat, F-15 Eagle, F-16 Falcon, F/A-18 Hornet


Name AIM-9L/M Sidewinder
Picture AIM-9L/M Sidewinder
Country USA
Manufacturer Raytheon Co. and Ford Aerospace and Communications Co.
Date Deployed 1976 for L  1983 for M
Range 29.03 km
Speed Mach 2.5
Propulsion One Thiokol or Bermite Mk 36 Model 7/8 solid-propellant rocket motor or ( later ) One reduced-smoke Thiokol Mk 36 Mod 9 ( TX-683 ) solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance DSQ-29 IR homing
Warhead 10.2 kg Hughes DSU-15/B active laser-fused WDU-17 annular blast/fragmentation
Launch Weight 85.3 kg
Length 2.85 m
Diameter 0.127 m
Fin Span 0.63 m


Name Skyflash
Picture Skyflash
Country UK
Manufacturer British Aerospace
Date Deployed 1978
Range 45 km
Speed Mach 4
Propulsion One Aerojet Mk52 Mod 2 or Rocketdyne Mk38 Mod 4 solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance Marconi XJ521 monopulse Semi-Active Radar Homing
Warhead 39.5-kg HE fragmentation with contact, delay action fuses.
Launch Weight 192.8 kg
Length 3.68 m
Diameter 0.203 m
Fin Span 1.02 m
Platforms Tornado


Name AIM-132 ASRAAM
Picture AIM-132 ASRAAM
Country UK, Germany and Norway
Manufacturer British Aerospace
Date Deployed 1998 ?
Range 300 m to 15 km
Speed Mach 3+
Propulsion One dual-thrust solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance strapdown inertial and Imaging Infrared
Warhead 10 kg blast/fragmentation
Launch Weight 100 kg
Length 2.73 m
Diameter 0.168 m
Fin Span 45 cm


Name MICA
Picture MICA
Country France
Manufacturer Matra
Date Deployed 1996 ?
Range 50 km
Speed Mach 4
Propulsion One SNPE solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance Inertial with ESD Actif 4A active/semi-active radar or SAT IR on final approach.
Warhead Thomson Brandt blast/fragmentation 26.5 lb (12 kg)
Launch Weight 110 kg
Length 3.10 m
Diameter 0.150 m
Fin Span 0.56 m
Platforms Mirage 2000, Rafale,


Name Mistral (ATAM)
Picture Mistral (ATAM)
Country France
Manufacturer ?
Date Deployed 1988?
Range 5 km (at 4 km effective against helicopters )
Speed 2763 km/h
Propulsion two stage solid propellant boost motor
Guidance All-aspect Infra-red
Warhead 3 kg HE tungsten ball
Fuze Laser proximity
Launch Weight 18 kg
Length 1.80 m
Diameter 90 mm
Fin Span 180 mm


Name Super 530F/D
Picture Super 530F/D
Country France
Manufacturer Matra
Date Deployed 19?? / 1979
Range 35 km
Speed Mach 3.7
Guidance EMD Super AD26 semi-active radar homing
Warhead 30 kg HE fragmentation with radar proximity fuze ( active radar fuzeing for D model)
Launch Weight 245 kg (270 kg active radar fuze)
Length 3.54 m (3.80 m)
Diameter 263 mm
Tailspan 0.64 m forward fins; 0.88 m aft fins


Name R.550 Magic
Picture R550 Magic
Country France
Manufacturer Matra
Date Deployed 1975
Range 9.3 km
Speed Mach 2.7
Propulsion SNPE Romeo single-stage composite-DB rocket
Guidance Infra-red ( not all-aspect )
Warhead 12.5 kg high explosive
Launch Weight 89.8 kg
Length 2.77 m
Diameter 157 mm
Fin Span 660 mm
Platforms F-8E Crusader, Super Etendard


Name R550 Magic 2 MK2
Picture R550 Magic 2
Country France
Manufacturer Matra S.A.
Date Deployed 1985
Range 320m minimum to 5,400m maximum
Speed Mach 2.7
Propulsion Advanced SNPE Richard rocket motor
Guidance Infra-red homing all aspect
Warhead 12.5 kg Blast fragmentation with radar proximity fuze
Launch Weight 89.8 kg
Length 2.75 m
Diameter 157mm
Fin Span 0.66 m
Platforms Mirage 2000, Rafale, Super Etendard


Name Aspide Mk1/Mk2
Picture Aspide Mk1/Mk2
Country Italy
Manufacturer Selenia
Date Deployed ?
Range 1 - 55 km; 80 km
Speed Mach 4
Propulsion One SNIA-Viscosa solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance Selenia monopulse semi-active radar homing
Warhead 33 kg SNIA Difesa e Spazio blast/fragmentation
Launch Weight 220 kg; 230 kg
Length 3.70 m; 3.65 m
Diameter 203 mm; 210 mm
Fin Span 1.00 m ; 1.00 m


Name Python 3
Picture Python 3
Country Israel
Manufacturer Raytheon Armament Development Authority
Date Deployed Mid 1980's
Range 0.5 km to 15 km
Speed Mach 3.5
Propulsion One Rafael Armaments Development Authority double-base solid propellant rocket motor
Guidance IR homing
Warhead 11 kg
Launch Weight 120 kg
Length 3.00 m
Diameter 160 mm
Fin Span 0.86 m
Remarks The Python can be fitted to F-15, F-16, all types of Mirage, F-5, F-4 Phantom and Kfir C-2 and C-7 aircraft


Name Python 4
Picture Python 4
Country Israel
Manufacturer Raytheon Armament Development Authority
Date Deployed Mid 1980's
Range 0.5 km to 15 km
Speed Mach 3.5
Propulsion One Rafael Armaments Development Authority double-base solid propellant rocket motor
Guidance IR homing
Warhead 11 kg
Launch Weight 120 kg
Length 3.00 m
Diameter 160 mm
Fin Span 0.86 m


Name R-40R/T ( AA-6A/B Acrid )
Picture R-40R/T / AA-6A/B Acrid
Country Russia
Manufacturer -
Date Deployed Late 60s
Range 30 km (R-40); 50 km (R-40TD and R-40RD)
Speed Mach 4.5
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
Fuze Radar and active laser
Guidance Command, inertial and semi-active radar (R-40R); Command, inertial and IR (R-40T)
Warhead 70 kg HE fragmentation
Launch Weight 475 kg
Length 6.2 m
Diameter 355 mm
Fin Span 1.8 m
Platforms Mig-25 Foxbat


Name R-60 ( AA-8 Aphid )
Picture R-60 / AA-8 Aphid
Country Russia
Manufacturer ?
Date Deployed 1975
Range 3 km, 5 km 10 km
Speed Mach 2+
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
Fuze Two active radar fuze aerials located aft of the moving control fins, and a single strake running down the forward half of the body. Active laser in R-60M
Guidance All aspect Infrared
Warhead 6 kg ( 1.6 kg of which is uranium ) HE fragmentation
Launch Weight 65 kg
Length 2.08 m
Diameter 130 mm
Fin Span 0.43 m
Platforms Su-24 FencerSu-25 Frogfoot Mig-23/27 Flogger


Name R-33E ( AA-9 Amos )
Picture R-33E / AA-9 Amos
Country Russia
Manufacturer Vympel
Date Deployed 1985?
Range 160 km
Speed Mach 4.5
Propulsion solid rocket
Fuze Active radar
Guidance Inertial, command updates and semi-active radar
Warhead 47 kg HE fragmentation
Launch Weight 490 kg
Length 4.15 m
Diameter 380mm
Fin Span 1.18 m (0.9 m wingspan)
Platforms Mig-31 Foxhound, up to 6 can be carried


Name R-27R/T ( AA-10 Alamo A/B/C/D )
Picture R-27R/T / AA-10 Alamo
Country Russia
Manufacturer Vympel
Date Deployed 1982
Range 2 - 80 km R-27R  70 km R-27T  130 km R-27RE  120 km R-27TE
Speed Mach 4
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance SARH  R-27R, R-27E  All-aspect Infrared  R-27T, R-27TE
Warhead 39 kg expanding rod
Launch Weight 253 kg R-27R  254 kg R-27T  350 kg R-27RE  343 kg R-27TE
Length 3.70 m
Diameter 230 mm
Fin Span 0.77 m
Platforms Mig-29 Fulcrum, Su-27 Flanker, Su-35 Super Flanker


Name R-73 ( AA-11 Archer )
Picture R-73 / AA-11 Archer
Country Russia
Manufacturer Vympel
Date Deployed 1980s
Range 20 km (R-73M1)  30 km (R-73M2) 40 km
Speed Mach 2.5
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance All aspect Infrared
Warhead 7.4 kg HE expanding rod warhead
Launch Weight 105 kg (R-73M1)  115 kg (R-73M2)
Length 2.9 m
Diameter 170 mm
Fin Span 0.51 m
Platforms Mig-29 Fulcrum, Mig-31 Foxhound, Su-24 Fencer, Su-25 Frogfoot, Su-27 Flanker, Su-35 Super Flanker


Name R-77 ( AA-12 Adder )
Picture R-77 / AA-12 Adder
Country Russia
Manufacturer Vympel
Date Deployed 1992
Range 50 km 90 km 150 km
Speed Mach 4.5
Propulsion solid rocket
Fuze Active radar
Guidance Radio Command + active radar homing on terminal phase (<20 km)
Warhead 30 kg HE fragmentation
Launch Weight 175 kg
Length 3.60 m
Diameter 200 mm
Fin Span 0.35 m
Platforms Mig-29 Fulcrum, Mig-31 Foxhound, Su-25 Frogfoot, Su-27 Flanker, Su-35 Super Flanker


Name PL-7
Picture PL-7
Country China
Manufacturer China National Aero-Technology Import and Export Corporation
Date Deployed Mid 1980's
Range 500m minimum to 14.4 km
Speed Mach 2.5
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance IR, all aspect homing
Warhead 13 kg HE fragmentation
Launch Weight 89 kg
Length 2.72 m
Diameter 160 mm
Wingspan 0.66 m


Name PL-10
Picture PL-10
Country China
Manufacturer China National Aero-Technology Import and Export Corporation
Date Deployed Mid 1980's
Range 60 km
Speed Mach 4
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance Radar guided, Semi-active terminal
Warhead 33 kg HE fragmentation
Launch Weight 220 kg
Length 3.66 m
Diameter ?
Wingspan ?



Air-to-air missiles in service or under development, as of 1996

Guidance Types:
IR = Infrared
OPT = optical
IR/ALL = Infrared All-Aspect
AR/ARH = Active Radar Homing
SAR = semi-active radar
SARH = Semi-Active Radar Homing
TARH = Terminal Active Radar Homing
IMTARH = Inertial, Midcourse updates, terminal active
PR = passive radar
I = Inertial
M = Mid-Course Update.

Missile Length Mass Range Speed Warhead Guidance
(name) (m) (kg) (km) (Mach) (kg) (see table)
International
AIM-132A ASRAAM (ordered, not in service) 2.90 87 15 ? 10 IR
Meteor (S225X merged with A3M,not in service) ? ? 100 ? ? IMTARH
Brazil
MAA-1 Mol 2.82 90 10 2.0 12 IR
China
PL-2 2.99 76 3 ? 11 IR
PL-3 2.99 82 3 ? 14 IR
PL-5B 2.89 85 16 ? 9 IR
PL-7 2.75 90 ? ? 13 IR
PL-8 3.00 120 5 ? 11 IR
PL-9 2.99 120 5 ? 10 IR
PL-10 3.99 300 15 3.0 ? SAR
France
MICA AR 3.10 110 60 ? ? AR
MICA IR 3.10 110 60 ? ? IR
R.550 Magic 1 2.72 89 10 2.0 13 IR
R.550 Magic 2 2.75 90 10 2.0 13 IR
Super 530D 3.80 270 40 4.5 30 SAR
Super 530F 3.54 245 35 4.5 30 SAR
Germany
IRIS-T ? ? ? ? ? IR
India
Astra ? ? ? ? ? AR
Israel
Python 3 3.00 120 15 3.5 11 IR
Python 4 3.00 ? ? ? ? IR
Shafrir 2 2.60 93 5 ? 11 IR
Italy
Aspide 1 3.70 220 100 4.0 35 SAR
Aspide 2 3.65 230 100 4.0 35 SAR
Japan
AAM-3 Type 90 2.60 70 5 ? ? IR
Russia
K-13A/R-13S "AA-2 Atoll" 2.84 75 8 2.5 11 IR
K-13M/R-13M "AA-2-2 Atoll-D"2.87 90 13 2.5 11 IR
K-13R/R-13R "AA-2-2 Atoll-C"3.50 93 8 2.5 11 SAR
Kh-31P "AS-17 Krypton" 5.23 600 200 3.0 90 PR
KS-172 RVV-L 7.40 750 400 ? ? AR
R-23R "AA-7 Apex" 4.46 244 27 3.4 35 SAR
R-23T "AA-7 Apex" 4.16 217 27 3.4 35 IR
R-24R "AA-7 Apex" 4.46 ? ? ? ? SAR
R-24T "AA-7 Apex" 4.16 ? ? ? ? IR
R-27EA "AA-10 Alamo" 4.78 350 130 ? 39 AR
R-27EM "AA-10 Alamo" 4.78 350 170 ? 39 SAR
R-27ER "AA-10 Alamo-C" 4.78 350 130 ? 39 SAR
R-27ET "AA-10 Alamo-D" 4.78 350 130 ? 39 IR
R-27P "AA-10 Alamo" ? ? ? ? 39 PR
R-27R "AA-10 Alamo-A" 4.08 235 60 ? 39 SAR
R-27T "AA-10 Alamo-B" 3.80 245 40 ? 39 IR
R-33 "AA-9 Amos" 4.15 490 120 ? 47 SAR
R-37 ? 600 150 ? ? AR
R-40RD "AA-6 Acrid" 5.98 461 70 4.5 38 SAR
R-40TD "AA-6 Acrid" 5.98 460 30 4.5 38 IR
R-60 "AA-8 Aphid" 2.14 45 7 2.5 4 IR
R-60M "AA-8 Aphid" 2.14 45 ? 2.5 4 IR
R-60MK "AA-8 Aphid" 2.14 45 12 2.5 4 IR
R-73/R-73M1 "AA-11 Archer" 2.90 105 15 ? 7 IR
R-73E/R-73M2 "AA-11 Archer" 2.90 110 30 ? 7 IR
R-77 RVV-AE "AA-12" 3.60 175 90 3.0 18 IMTARH
South Africa
Darter 2.75 89 10 4.2 16 IR
V3B Kukri 2.94 73 4 3.9 ? IR
Taiwan
Sky Sword I 2.87 90 15 ? ? IR
Sky Sword II 3.60 190 40 ? ? SAR
United Kingdom
Active Sky Flash (cancelled)3.66 208 50 4.0 30 AR
Sky Flash 3.66 192 50 4.0 30 SAR
United States of America
AIM-7M Sparrow 3.66 230 100 2.5 39 SAR
AIM-7P Sparrow 3.66 230 45 ? 39 SAR
AIM-7R Sparrow 3.66 ? 45 ? ? IR+SAR
AIM-9J Sidewinder 3.07 78 15 2.5 ? IR
AIM-9L Sidewinder 2.87 87 18 2.5 10 IR
AIM-9M Sidewinder 2.87 87 8 2.5 10 IR
AIM-9P Sidewinder 3.07 82 8 2.5 12 IR
AIM-9R Sidewinder 2.87 87 8 2.5 10 Opt
AIM-9S Sidewinder 2.87 87 8 2.5 10 IR
AIM-54C Phoenix 4.30 463 200 4.0 60 IMTARH
AIM-92A Stinger 1.52 14 5 2.0 3 IR
AIM-120A AMRAAM 3.65 157 75 4.0 22 IMTARH
Have Dash 3.00 180 50 3.0 ? AR+IR

Note: The figures and numbers above are guess-estimates based on the averaging of data from many sources including Danshistory website, Janes Defense Information Group and the Russian Aviation Page. This may account for small variations of the numbers compared to other sources.

Note: Part of the 'Air-to-Air (A2A) Missiles' introduction text is from Wikipedia.



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